The first quote already gives us a good idea of what characterizes Philosophy as a discipline. It demands that we do not overlook or hold back any questions, but that we always consider the possible alternatives. But this does not yet tell us anything about the designated subject matter of philosophy. Traditionally such definitions are not very helpful to the uninitiated. They say something like this: ‘Philosophy is the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, especially when considered as an academic discipline.’ - Oxford Dictionary.
It may be more helpful to describe philosophy as the one discipline that does not look at the world through a discipline, such as adopting a biological or political worldview, but instead it looks at the disciplines we use to understand the world. In this sense philosophy concerns all disciplines. It stands to reason that this takes practice and hence we understand the second quote by Descartes as encouraging us to study philosophy. Along the way our students acquire a thorough understanding of the various philosophical traditions and a strong set of skills, such as
- Understanding, analysing, criticising, and constructing cogent arguments;
- Describing, analysing, and criticising complex and abstract problems in philosophy and beyond;
- Reading, writing, and speaking effectively on philosophical issues and beyond;
- Applying philosophical analysis and argumentation to reflect on other fields of study;
- Independently undertaking a substantial piece of research, culminating in a research paper;
- Demonstrating a solid understanding of the basic concepts of formal logic.
It is certainly the case that within professional philosophy there are many detailed and technical debates, the fine points of which will often elude the casual observer. In this sense Philosophy is like most other academic disciplines: highly specialised. But philosophy does distinguish itself from most other disciplines in that there is a philosophy of everything. There is philosophy of biology, of language, of mind, of literature, of mathematics, of science, of logic, of religion, of law, of psychology, and ethics in all its guises and social philosophy and political philosophy, to name but a selection.
It is exactly because of this remarkable connectedness of Philosophy to all other disciplines that it is so well suited to Liberal Arts and Sciences students. Philosophy allows a student of multiple disciplines to step back from the specialised work within those disciplines and contemplate the place and role of these disciplines in the larger academic and worldly context. It allows the student to look at the disciplines, rather than merely through them.
In addition to this general intellectual use for philosophy, a second reason to study the discipline is that it teaches many practical skills: critical reading and writing, general analytical and reasoning skills, to name a few. Many of these skills are eminently transferable to other academic or professional disciplines (think of law, medical ethics, or politics, but also advertising and consultancy).
If you are interested in philosophy of mind:
Neuroscience, Psychology, Biology, Linguistics.
If you are interested in philosophy of language:
Languages, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Literature, Mathematics, Anthropology, Classics.
If you are interested in political and or legal philosophy:
Political Science, Law, History, Religious Studies, Sociology, Geography, Psychology, Economics, Classics.
If you interested in philosophy of science:
Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, History, Sociology.
If you are interested in aesthetics:
Art History, Performance, Literature, Anthropology, Classics.
If you are interested in ethics:
Possibly all the Pre-Med courses (Life Sciences), Neuroscience, Religious Studies, Political Science, History, Classics.
If you are interested in the history of philosophy:
History, Literature, Classics, Anthropology, Language and Culture, Political Science.
If you are interested in epistemology and metaphysics:
Physics, Mathematics, Neuroscience, Biology, Linguistics, Logic.
If you are interested in philosophy of logic:
Logic, Mathematics, Linguistics, Physics, Language and Culture, Literature.
If you are interested in philosophical anthropology:
Anthropology, Sociology, Religious Studies, Classics, Literature, History, Political Science.
NB: This is just a list of suggestions. Any and all combinations of the different interests in philosophy can work and will usually lead to an almost endless list of possible supporting disciplines.
HUMPHI11 and HUMPHI12 lead to all level 2 Philosophy courses. It is important to note that the HUMPHI11 is the cornerstone of the Philosophy track. Without it, students may find the level 2 courses too difficult.
Note also that the HUMREL11 (Religion) does not give access to the HUMPHI21 and the HUMPHI23, but only to the HUMREL24. This then also means that the HUMREL24 does not give automatic access to the HUMPHI33/34/35. Note that the HUMPHI25 and th HUMREL24 are offered in alternating years.
As the levels of our students vary considerably, it may be that a student can do without the HUMPHI11, or without the 21 or the 23 in order to enter the 3X courses. Here, permission can be asked from the instructors.
The HUMPHI12 is a course that deals more with non-Western philosophy. It gives access to the 21, 25 and 23, but for students without background it is highly recommended that they read selections from the textbook of the HUMPHI11 as preparation. This will never be much, as the PHI12 already contains many of these texts too.
The SCIHIS11 deals with the history and philosophy of science, and although it has a ‘history code’ it really be longs in between history, science and philosophy. It is a good course to take for adding context to philosophy and science.
The ideal Philosophy track is HUMPHI11 followed by HUMPHI21, HUMPHI23 and HUMPHI3/4/5/6.
The HUMPHI21 gives an in depth overview of the history of epistemology (theory of knowledge) and metaphysics. The HUMPHI23 deals with the 20th century divide between analytic and continental philosophy, mostly in the context of language, mind, philosophy of science and truth (theoretical philosophy). The HUMREL24 is our ethics course, it is shared with the religion track and represents the practical aspect of the track at the level 2 together with the HUMPHI25 course on philosophical anthropology.
After the level 2 courses there are four level 3 courses senior seminars: the HUMPHI33, 34, 35 and 36.
It is advisable to take at least two level 3 courses. The seminar changes topic every time it is taught. This allows our students to take it four times (hence the quadruple code) and take full advantage of the limited offerings at University College Utrecht. The seminar will always deal with a theme or author in much more depth than the level 2 courses. The seminars have loosely been organized to reflect the system of the complete track: Historical, Theoretical and Practical philosophy. The seminars will often contain one or more of these concentrations within philosophy. So, if there is a seminar on Kant, it is historical, but also theoretical (given the nature of the texts), and if Kant’s ethics is read, then it is also practical in nature. Past topics in the seminar have included: Spinoza, Post modernism and its critics, Wittgenstein, Rorty, recognition (Honneth), Eastern and Western metaphysics, the philosophy of Donald Davidson, Aristotle (2014-2).
The programme is flexible, but it is ideal to take the HUMPHI11 or the HUMPHI12 in the first year, the HUMPHI21 in the Fall of the second year and the HUMPHI23 in the Spring (or start then with a level 3). For those students who plan to continue in Philosophy, we recommend that they take the HUMPHI11 and/or the HUMPHI12 as basis, maybe even complemented with the SSCPOL11 Political Theory course.
Naturally we intend to prepare our students so that they can enter an Master's programme. There are two considerations here. The first one is getting the student in, and the second one is making sure that the student is equipped to perform well in the program. In part these two considerations overlap.
Master's programmes will generally publish their requirements. Many schools will ask for about 60 ECTS in Philosophy or very closely related disciplines. A common University College Utrecht curriculum in Philosophy tends to consist of a full track (e.g.: HUMPHI11 (or PHI12), HUMPHI21, HUMPHI33) and some extra courses at level 2 and 3 (e.g.: HUMPHI23, HUMPHI34). In addition it is of course recommended that the student write his/her thesis in Philosophy (HUMRES32). Together this amounts to 52,5 ECTS. Although always a good idea, it is not necessary to complete the ECTS requirements by taking one more straight Philosophy course. Related courses will do very well too. So now the student can choose to take courses like SSCPOL11 (Political Theory), HUMREL23 (Religion in the Public Domain) or SCIHIS11 (History and Philosophy of Science).
Although the requirements for entry vary between schools, in the past the above selection of courses in Philosophy has allowed our students to be very successful, especially in taught programmes.
We have recommended the taught, one-year Master's programmes rather than the research Master's, because the Liberal Arts and Sciences Curriculum at University College Utrecht limits the number of taught courses in Philosophy in comparison to straight Philosophy programmes in, for example, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. But our students also do very well in two-year research Master's with one taught year. In the past students have entered King’s College London, London School of Economics, Durham University, University of Warwick, University of Amsterdam, Leiden University, Utrecht University, New School, University of Sussex, University of Edinburgh, Radboud University Nijmegen, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The University of Chicago, University of Gottingen, SOAS, University Hertfordshire, University of St. Andrews, University of Oxford etc.
Having said this, a Liberal Arts and Sciences curriculum provides an ideal basis for further study in Philosophy. This is not merely the result of the philosophy courses, but rather of the varied disciplines that students can study at University College Utrecht. Philosophy is just the kind of discipline that ‘feeds’ on other subjects. There is, some say, a philosophy of everything. In this sense the disciplines that are useful to a philosophy student are endless. But, there are some fields that suit the discipline particularly well. (See previous section for an overview.)
UCSCHIHIS11: History and Philosophy of Science:
A chronological overview of the history and philosophy of science from the ancient world to the 21st century.
UCHUMPHI11: Introduction to Philosophy
A general introduction to Western philosophy, from Plato and Aristotle to Nietzsche and Frege. All major themes (epistemology, metaphysics, ethics) and sub-themes are discussed.
UCHUMPHI12: World Philosophies
An introduction to philosophy with an emphasis on the comparison between Western and non-Western thought.
UCHUMPHI21: Metaphysics and Epistemology: Plato to Peirce
A historical, systematic survey of two main branches of philosophy: metaphysics and epistemology.
UCHUMPHI23: 20th Century Theoretical Philosophy
Reading texts across the divide of analytic and continental philosophy in the 20th century.
UCHUMPHI25: Philosophical Views on Humans and Gods (alternates with UCHUMREL24)
Philosophical anthropology. Is there a uniquely human nature? An East/West comparative perspective.
UCHUMREL24: Ethics and Religion (alternates with UCHUMPHI25)
Ethical theory and religious views on ethics and moral problems.
UCHUMPHI33: Senior Seminar in Philosophy I
In depth investigations of thinkers, themes and issues in philosophy. Topics change every semester.
|1||HUMPHI11: Introduction to Philosophy||HUMPHI11: Introduction to Philosophy|
|HUMPHI12: World Philosophies||SCIHIS11: History and Philosophy of ScienceX|
|2*||HUMPHI21: Metaphysics and Epistemology: Plato to Peirce||HUMPHI23: 20th Century Theoretical Philosophy|
|HUMPHI25: Philosophical Views on Humans and Godsa|
|HUMREL24: Ethics and Religiona|
|3||HUMPHI33: Senior Seminar in Philosophy Ia||HUMPHI34: Senior Seminar in Philosophy IIa|
|HUMPHI35: Senior Seminar in Philosophy IIIa||HUMPHI36: Senior Seminar in Philosophy IVa|
* it is adivised to follow Humanities Lab course, or one of the other indicated methods courses
Dr. Floris van der Burg
Contemporary philosophy of mind and language
Philosophy of science
Prof. dr. Jan van Ophuijsen
History of philosophy
Epistemology and metaphysics
Dr. Chiara Robbiano
Ancient Greek philosophy (Parmenides)
Comparative philosophy (especially ancient Greece and India)
Dr. Floris van der Burg is the Philosophy Fellow at University College Utrecht. Office: Voltaire–Ff.