Utrecht University considers any form of academic dishonesty to be a very serious offense. Utrecht University expects each student to be familiar with and to observe the norms and values that ensure academic integrity.

The most serious forms of deception that can impair this integrity are fraud and plagiarism. Plagiarism is a form of fraud and is defined as the wrongful appropriation of another author’s work without proper citation. The text below provides further elaboration on what may be considered fraud or plagiarism, along with a number of concrete examples. Please note that this is not a comprehensive list!

If the university discovers a case of fraud or plagiarism, then the study programme’s Examination Committee may implement sanctions on the offender. The most serious sanction that the Examination Committee may implement is the submission of a request for expulsion to the Executive Board.


Fraud may include:

  • Copying answers from another person during an exam. The person providing the opportunity to copy is considered an accomplice to fraud;
  • Being in possession of (i.e. having/carrying) tools and resources during examinations, such as pre-programmed calculators, mobile phones, smartwatch, smartglasses, books, course readers, notes, etc., consultation of which is not explicitly permitted;
  • Allowing others to complete all or part of an assignment, and passing it off as your own work;
  • Acquisition of the questions or answers of an exam prior to the time the exam is to take place;
  • Fabrication of survey- or interview answers or research data.

Plagiarism is the appropriation of another author’s works, thoughts, or ideas and the representation of such as one’s own work.

The following are some examples of what may be considered plagiarism:

  • Copying and pasting text from digital sources, such as encyclopaedias or digital periodicals, without using quotation marks and referring to the source;
  • Copying and pasting text from the Internet without using quotation marks and referring to the source;
  • Copying information from printed materials, such as books, periodicals or encyclopaedias, without using quotation marks and referring to the source;
  • Using a translation of the texts listed above in one’s own work, without using quotation marks and referring to the source;
  • Paraphrasing from the texts listed above without a (clear) reference: paraphrasing must be marked as such (by explicity linking the text with the original author, either in text or a footnote), ensuring that the impression is not created that the ideas expressed are those of the student;
  • Using another person’s imagery, video, audio or test materials without reference and in so doing representing them as one’s own work;
  • Resubmission of the student’s own earlier work without source references, and allowing this to pass for work originally produced for the purpose of the course, unless this is expressly permitted in the course or by the lecturer;
  • Using other students’ work and representing it as one’s own work. If this occurs with the other student’s permission, then he or she may be considered an accomplice to the plagiarism;
  • When one author of a joint paper commits plagiarism, then all authors involved in that work are accomplices to the plagiarism if they could have known or should have known that the other was committing plagiarism;
  • Submitting papers provided by a commercial institution, such as an internet site with summaries or papers, or which have been written by others, regardless of whether the text was provided in exchange for payment.


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