The Education and Examination Regulations (OER, short for Onderwijs- en Examenregelingen) describe the specific regulations for the programme. In the OER you find information for instance about your study programme and the graduation requirements.

In your first year of enrolment, you will receive two letters containing your personal study advice.

Before 1 February you will receive a preliminary letter of advice concerning the continuation of your study, which is based on your study results for the first period. This advice is not binding. It acts as a warning in the case that your study progress is insufficient and offers you the opportunity to improve your academic performance.

The second letter of advice will be sent at the end of the first study year and is binding.

To receive a positive study advice at the end of the academic year 2020-21, you must pass at least five courses in the first year of your study at U.S.E. This means 37.5 ECTS of the -in total- 60 ECTS. A negative binding study advice will be given, if you have not obtained enough study credits, i.e. 37.5 ECTS. Receiving such advice means that you will not be able to enrol for the Bachelor’s programme in Economics and Business Economics in Utrecht for a period of four consecutive years.

Unforeseen circumstances

It is possible that a delay will occur in your academic progress due to unforeseen circumstances, such as a long period of illness, functional disorders or grave family circumstances. If you believe that these circumstances should be taken into consideration with respect to your study advice, you must contact the Study Advisors as soon as can reasonably be expected.

Please note! Credits attained from any exemptions you have been granted and from any interim tests you may have passed do not count towards calculating how many EC you have attained. A binding study advice only applies to the Bachelor's degree programme in question at Utrecht University.

More information

At each examination invigilators are present. You can contact an invigilator for all your questions. You must follow the instructions of the invigilator. The teacher is only present for substantive questions. You ask the invigilator to call the teacher for you when you need him / her.

Start and end
After the first 30 minutes of the exam, it is no longer possible for latecomers to enter the exam hall. Students, who are already in the exam hall, do not leave until after the first 30 minutes of the exam. If the examiner is aware of extraordinary circumstances (e.g. train delays) which could lead to lateness, the examiner may decide to prolong the 30 minutes of late entry to an hour. In that case the time at which students are permitted to leave the hall will be consequently pushed back.

All students put their ID with a clear and recognizable photo on the table and the invigilator checks whether all the students who are taking the exam are on the list and ticks the name. With a combined retake exam it is especially important to check whether the students present are actually allowed to sit the exam.

Default rules

  • Bags are to be placed on the floor and must remain closed for the duration of the exam.
  • Coats must be hung in the wardrobe or folded up under the chair until the exam has been handed in.
  • Mobile phones and other communication devices are only allowed when switched off and stored in a closed bag, with the exception of a non-programmable calculator with a mere numeric memory. It is only possible to alter the above-mentioned stipulations if explicitly stated on the front page of the exam.

It is only possible to visit the toilet after the first 30 minutes of the exam with permission of the invigilator. The invigilator does not allow more than 1 student at a time to go to the toilet.

Scrap paper
At the start of the exam, the invigilator will hand out the test assignments and a certified piece of scrap paper. It is strictly forbidden to use any paper other than the exam paper and/or certified scrap paper.

Students have the right to use a dictionary and may bring this themselves (hardcopy only). The invigilator has the right to check the dictionary.

The Education and Examination Regulations (Article 5.14 bachelor’s EER) state that ‘being in possession of (i.e. having/carrying) tools and resources during tests, such as preprogrammed calculators…’ is not permitted.

For the current academic year a short list of models, which are definitely permitted for use during exams, has been comprised. We recommend that you select one of these models to avoid any confusion.

Recommended models:

  • Casio: Casio fx-82MS
  • Texas Instruments: TI30XB(S)
  • Hewlett Packard: HP10S+

As of the academic year 2021-22 a list of calculators will be published stating the only models that will be permitted.

If the invigilator notices (attempted) fraudulent behaviour, s/he must notify the student in question as well as the examiner and confiscate the evidence. The student will be given the opportunity to finish his or her work. The further procedure for the examiner is as follows:

  • The examiner must fill in an exam incident report as soon as possible
  • The examiner must hand in the exam incident report and the confiscated evidence to the secretary to the Board of Examiners

The Board of Examiners will take further necessary actions.

Handing in the exam
When handing in the exam, make sure you have put your name, student number and signature on your work.
As proof of handing in the work you will receive a receipt (e.g. second front page).

The invigilator may exclude a student from further participation in the exam if the student cannot produce any ID, is using a mobile phone or other communication equipment, have such equipment switched on or if the student fails to comply with the instructions of the invigilator. Being excluded means that the student will receive a grade 1 for the exam.

You can inspect your marked exam upon request during twenty working days after the announcement of the result of a written test. In case your exam was on paper (not digitally), please contact Exam Support via email to request a copy of your work:

More information (date, time and place) about the opportunity for you to discuss your work will be made available no later than the publication of the test results by the course coordinator.

If you did not pass an exam, it is possible to retake the exam under certain conditions.

If you have met the course’s effort requirements and your final grade is at least a (NON-rounded off) 4, then you are permitted to retake a Bachelor’s course exam. The effort requirements can be found in the Course Catalogue. In the information stated about these courses, under the caption “Effort Requirements”, you will find a description of what is minimally required.

  • With a non-rounded off 4, you may take a replacement exam (RE). This exam comprises the whole of the study material, and in most cases you will take an entirely new exam or assignment. The grade for this retake exam will be your new final grade.
  • With a non-rounded off 5, you can choose either a replacement exam (RE) or a supplementary exam (SR). In a supplementary exam, only the part of the first exam which you do not master, will be tested. If you pass the supplementary exam, your final grade will be a 6. If you do not pass the exam, your final grade will remain a 5.

If you are a repeater, have met the effort requirements and your final grade is at least a NON-rounded off 4, then you are entitled to SR/RE examination. Even when the final grade is at least a non-rounded off 4 and the course in question does not have effort requirements, you have a right to SR/RE examination. The two regulations mentioned above are applicable.

When are you considered to be a repeater?

If you enrolled for a course, did not terminate your enrolment within two weeks of the commencement of the course and did not pass the course, you will be considered a ‘repeater’ in the following year.

What is meant by the Repeater regulation?

Repeater courses are a less intensive form of education: there are fewer contact hours and it is assumed that the students will prepare for exams and other tests more independently. The exact setup of the repeater course can differ per course. It is possible that some courses have specific effort requirements, which the students must meet if they want to be eligible for supplementary and replacement examinations (SR/RE). If the course has no defined effort requirements and the final non-rounded off grade is at least a 4, then the repeater is entitled to SR/RE.

If you have extra-curricular activities and you are not certain whether you will be able to take and pass two courses, you should enrol for one.

Repeater courses in 2021-2022

  • Introduction to Economics and Business Economics (before Multidisciplinary Economics)

  • Microeconomics, Institutions and Welfare

  • Macro 1: European Perspective (before Macroeconomics: A European Perspective) 

  • Statistics

  • Intermediate Microeconomics, Games and Behaviour

  • Econometrics

  • International Economics, Spatial Interactions

Detailed overview of the repeater courses 2021-2022. 

Based on classes followed elsewhere it is possible to request an exemption for a course or for credits. If you believe you are applicable for exemption, please file your request via the exemption request form.

The official rules and regulations concerning exemptions are listed in the EER of the Bachelor (art. 5.13).


Are you ill and supposed to take an exam? What you need to do depends on whether you have a doctor’s note or not.

  • Yes, I have a doctor’s note: Submit a request for special exam arrangements to the Board of Examiners via email:
    Also notify your Course Coordinator about your absence.
  • No, I do not have a doctor’s note: Book an appointment with the Study Advisor.
    Also notify your Course Coordinator about your absence.

Send the doctor’s note or make the appointment as soon as can reasonably be expected. If you do this too late it may mean that special arrangements cannot be made.

On account of your illness, it is possible for you to receive a ruling for special arrangements concerning the (midterm or end term) exam you have missed. 

The time, date and specifications of such exam arrangements are determined by the Course Coordinator. These arrangements only can be provided for midterm and/or final exams.
Supplementary and replacement retake examinations are excluded from these arrangements. When and if the special exam arrangements are at the same time as supplementary/replacement examinations, then there is no further retake opportunity.

If you encounter a delay in your academic progress due to your illness, you are to report this to the Study Advisor as soon as possible.

The validity of courses passed (in principle) is unlimited. Have you passed a test more than five years ago? Then the knowledge or skills may be out of date, in which case the Board of Examiners may impose an additional or alternative test for a course.
This implies only to final grades. The validity of partial grades (grades for a course that was not successfully completed) lapses after the academic year in which they were obtained.
If, despite the aforementioned arrangement, you are going to encounter problems concerning the validity of your final grades, please contact the Board of Examiners.
The complete text can be found in the Education and Examination Regulations (EER), art. 5.10.


Following his or her registration, a student is entitled to certain provisions such as participation in a course of study, sitting examinations and the use of student facilities and study supervision. In addition, students must finance a number of things themselves, such as books and course materials. With regard to the students’ own contributions in addition to tuition fees, please read the Guidelines on extra contributions in addition to tuition fees.

Grading Tables

Your UU-grades abroad

To help foreign universities to interpret the value of our grades, UU publishes Grading Tables:

  • a table for Bachelor’s courses and
  • a table for Master’s courses.

The Grading Tables provide statistical distributions of grades awarded at Utrecht University. They show which percentage of all passing grades that were awarded in the three most recent academic years were (rounded-off) a 6.0, a 6.5, a 7.5, etc. The tables will be published on the International Diploma Supplement of all students who graduate after September 1st 2017.

In addition to the Grading Tables, UU also publishes a weighted average grade on the ten point scale on your International Diploma Supplement.

What do Grading Tables not show?

Grading Tables do not show whether you belong to the 10% (or any other percentage) of your class. The tables do not contain information about the average either, nor are they just about your fellow students.

The most recent Grading Tables (September 2017 – August 2020)









































Grade Point Average substituted by Grading Tables

Until 1 September 2017, Utrecht University published a Grade Point Average (GPA) to provide help institutions abroad to interpret UU-grades. Many Anglo-Saxon universities use this four point scale to express their weighted average grade. The GPA always needs clarification. The standards according to which the GPA is calculated differ between (international) universities.

The Final GPA was published on the International Diploma Supplement, an addendum to your diploma, for all students who started their Bachelor’s or Master’s programme after September 2007 and who graduated before September 1st 2017. The GPA was calculated by firstly averaging your grades, weighted in study points. This weighted average grade was then converted to a Grade Point Average expressed in two decimals according to this table.

Calculating the GPA

The GPA of Bachelor’s students was calculated slightly differently from that of Master’s students. For Bachelor’s students, results obtained during the first year of their studies were not included in the final GPA.

Utrecht University considers any form of academic dishonesty to be a very serious offense. Utrecht University expects each student to be familiar with and to observe the norms and values that ensure academic integrity.The most serious forms of deception that can impair this integrity are fraud and plagiarism. Plagiarism is a form of fraud and is defined as the wrongful appropriation of another author’s work without proper citation. See the further elaboration on what may be considered fraud or plagiarism.

If the university discovers a case of fraud or plagiarism, then the study programme’s Board of Examiners may implement sanctions on the offender. The most serious sanction that the Board of Examiners may implement is the submission of a request for expulsion to the Executive Board.

If you feel you have not been treated properly by someone employed by Utrecht University, or if you disagree with a decision that affects you personally, you can respond in a number of ways. You can submit a complaint, an objection or an appeal.

For the full details about the various procedures and which procedure is applicable for your situation, visit Complaints, objections and appeals.

Utrecht University processes a substantial volume of personal data. In accordance with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) the university is responsible for ensuring that personal data is processed properly. Also see the Privacy Statement on the Utrecht University website.